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[Java知识库]SpringBoot 使用 FTP 操作文件

简介

使用 SpringBoot 配置 FTP 服务器,上传、删除、下载文件。

配置 FTP

检查是否安装 vsftpd

rpm -qa | grep vsftpd

检修是否已经安装 vsftpd 及查看版本号.

安装 vsftpd

yum -y install vsftpd

如果报错,则使用管理员权限执行 sudo yum -y install vsftpd

关闭匿名访问

关闭匿名访问后,想访问里面的文件就需要账号和密码;如果不关,就可以直接访问。

vim /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

如果提示是只读文件,那么你只需要输入命令: sudo vim /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

如下:

# Example config file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
#
# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file
# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.
# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.
#
# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.
# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd's
# capabilities.
#
# Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware - allowed by default if you comment this out).
anonymous_enable=NO
#
# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.
local_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.
write_enable=YES
#
# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,
# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)
local_umask=022
#
# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only
# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will
# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.
# When SELinux is enforcing check for SE bool allow_ftpd_anon_write, allow_ftpd_full_access
#anon_upload_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create
# new directories.
#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES
#
# Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they
# go into a certain directory.
dirmessage_enable=YES
#
# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.
xferlog_enable=YES
#
# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).
connect_from_port_20=YES
#
# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by
# a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not
# recommended!
#chown_uploads=YES
#chown_username=whoever
#
# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown
# below.
#xferlog_file=/var/log/xferlog
#
# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format.
# Note that the default log file location is /var/log/xferlog in this case.
xferlog_std_format=YES
#
# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.
#idle_session_timeout=600

关闭匿名访问就是将:anonymous_enable=NO

启动服务

systemctl start vsftpd.service

查看服务状态

systemctl status vsftpd.service
[root@hadoop-master ~]# systemctl status vsftpd.service
● vsftpd.service - Vsftpd ftp daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/vsftpd.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since 一 2022-12-19 10:15:39 CST; 58min ago
  Process: 21702 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/vsftpd /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 21703 (vsftpd)
   CGroup: /system.slice/vsftpd.service
           └─21703 /usr/sbin/vsftpd /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

1219 10:15:39 hadoop-master systemd[1]: Starting Vsftpd ftp daemon...
1219 10:15:39 hadoop-master systemd[1]: Started Vsftpd ftp daemon.
[root@hadoop-master ~]#

看到绿色的 active(running),代表着启动成功正在运行中。

添加 FTP 用户

因为在 Linux 上,root 用户是不能登陆 FTP 的。如果你输入的是 root 用户,登陆会失败的。

adduser ftpadmin

设置密码:

passwd ftpadmin

输入两次密码就 ok 了。

配置允许root用户登录

/etc/vsftpd/user_list 文件和 /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers 文件中的root这一行注释掉

修改/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf,在最后一行处添加local_root=/

service vsftpd  restart

这样远程就可以root用户身份登录ftp了。

文件存储地址授权

如存储地址为:app/upload/,设置权限为:

chmod 777 /app/upload/

SpringBoot 编码

添加依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.jcraft</groupId>
    <artifactId>jsch</artifactId>
    <version>0.1.55</version>
</dependency>

操作文件工具类

package com.demo.utils;

import com.jcraft.jsch.*;
import com.demo.dto.UploadFileDto;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.util.Properties;

/**
 * @ClassName: UploadFileUtils.java
 * @Description: 上传文件
 * @Author: tanyp
 * @Date: 2022/12/19 10:38
 **/
@Slf4j
public class UploadFileUtils {

    /**
     * @MonthName: upload
     * @Description: 上传文件
     * @Author: tanyp
     * @Date: 2022/12/19 10:38
     * @Param: [dto]
     * @return: boolean
     **/
    public static boolean upload(UploadFileDto dto) throws Exception {
        log.info("============上传文件开始==============");
        Boolean result = false;
        ChannelSftp sftp = null;
        Channel channel = null;
        Session sshSession = null;
        try {
            JSch jSch = new JSch();
            jSch.getSession(dto.getAccount(), dto.getHost(), dto.getPort());
            sshSession = jSch.getSession(dto.getAccount(), dto.getHost(), dto.getPort());
            sshSession.setPassword(dto.getPasswd());
            Properties sshConfig = new Properties();
            sshConfig.put("StrictHostKeyChecking", "no");
            sshSession.setConfig(sshConfig);
            sshSession.connect();
            channel = sshSession.openChannel("sftp");
            channel.connect();
            sftp = (ChannelSftp) channel;

            sftp.cd(dto.getWorkingDir());
            sftp.put(dto.getInputStream(), dto.getFileName());
            result = true;
            log.info("============上传文件结束==============");
        } catch (JSchException e) {
            result = false;
            log.error("=====上传文件异常:{}", e.getMessage());
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            closeChannel(sftp);
            closeChannel(channel);
            closeSession(sshSession);
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @MonthName: delete
     * @Description: 删除文件
     * @Author: tanyp
     * @Date: 2022/12/19 10:38
     * @Param: [dto]
     * @return: boolean
     **/
    public static boolean delete(UploadFileDto dto) throws Exception {
        log.info("============删除文件开始==============");
        Boolean result = false;
        ChannelSftp sftp = null;
        Channel channel = null;
        Session sshSession = null;
        try {
            JSch jSch = new JSch();
            jSch.getSession(dto.getAccount(), dto.getHost(), dto.getPort());
            sshSession = jSch.getSession(dto.getAccount(), dto.getHost(), dto.getPort());
            sshSession.setPassword(dto.getPasswd());
            Properties sshConfig = new Properties();
            sshConfig.put("StrictHostKeyChecking", "no");
            sshSession.setConfig(sshConfig);
            sshSession.connect();
            channel = sshSession.openChannel("sftp");
            channel.connect();
            sftp = (ChannelSftp) channel;

            sftp.cd(dto.getWorkingDir());
            sftp.rm(dto.getFileName());
            result = true;
            log.info("============删除文件结束==============");
        } catch (JSchException e) {
            result = false;
            log.error("=====删除文件异常:{}", e.getMessage());
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            closeChannel(sftp);
            closeChannel(channel);
            closeSession(sshSession);
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @MonthName: download
     * @Description: 下载文件
     * @Author: tanyp
     * @Date: 2022/12/19 10:38
     * @Param: [dto]
     * @return: boolean
     **/
    public static boolean download(UploadFileDto dto) throws Exception {
        log.info("============下载文件开始==============");
        Boolean result = false;
        ChannelSftp sftp = null;
        Channel channel = null;
        Session sshSession = null;
        try {
            JSch jSch = new JSch();
            jSch.getSession(dto.getAccount(), dto.getHost(), dto.getPort());
            sshSession = jSch.getSession(dto.getAccount(), dto.getHost(), dto.getPort());
            sshSession.setPassword(dto.getPasswd());
            Properties sshConfig = new Properties();
            sshConfig.put("StrictHostKeyChecking", "no");
            sshSession.setConfig(sshConfig);
            sshSession.connect();
            channel = sshSession.openChannel("sftp");
            channel.connect();
            sftp = (ChannelSftp) channel;

            sftp.cd(dto.getWorkingDir());
            sftp.get(dto.getFileName(), new FileOutputStream(new File(dto.getDownloadPath())));
            sftp.disconnect();
            sftp.getSession().disconnect();
            result = true;
            log.info("============下载文件结束==============");
        } catch (JSchException e) {
            result = false;
            log.error("=====下载文件异常:{}", e.getMessage());
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            closeChannel(sftp);
            closeChannel(channel);
            closeSession(sshSession);
        }
        return result;
    }

    private static void closeChannel(Channel channel) {
        if (channel != null) {
            if (channel.isConnected()) {
                channel.disconnect();
            }
        }
    }

    private static void closeSession(Session session) {
        if (session != null) {
            if (session.isConnected()) {
                session.disconnect();
            }
        }
    }

}

UploadFileDto.java

package com.demo.dto;

import io.swagger.annotations.ApiModel;
import io.swagger.annotations.ApiModelProperty;
import lombok.AllArgsConstructor;
import lombok.Builder;
import lombok.Data;
import lombok.NoArgsConstructor;

import java.io.InputStream;

/**
 * @ClassName: UploadFileDto.java
 * @ClassPath: com.demo.dto.UploadFileDto.java
 * @Description: 上传文件
 * @Author: tanyp
 * @Date: 2022/12/19 10:38
 **/
@Data
@AllArgsConstructor
@NoArgsConstructor
@Builder
@ApiModel(value = "上传文件Dto")
public class UploadFileDto {

    @ApiModelProperty(value = " ftp 服务器ip地址")
    private String host;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = " ftp 服务器port,默认是21")
    private Integer port;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = " ftp 服务器用户名")
    private String account;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = " ftp 服务器密码")
    private String passwd;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = " ftp 服务器存储图片的绝对路径")
    private String workingDir;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = "上传到ftp 服务器文件名")
    private String fileName;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = " 文件流")
    private InputStream inputStream;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = " 下载文件的路径")
    private String downloadPath;

}

UploadVo.java

package com.demo.vo;

import io.swagger.annotations.ApiModel;
import io.swagger.annotations.ApiModelProperty;
import lombok.AllArgsConstructor;
import lombok.Builder;
import lombok.Data;
import lombok.NoArgsConstructor;

/**
 * @ClassName: UploadVo.java
 * @ClassPath: com.demo.vo.UploadVo.java
 * @Description: 文件VO
 * @Author: tanyp
 * @Date: 2022/12/19 15:18
 **/
@Data
@AllArgsConstructor
@NoArgsConstructor
@Builder
@ApiModel(value = "文件VO")
public class UploadVo {

    @ApiModelProperty(value = "原始文件名称")
    private String oldName;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = "新文件名称")
    private String newName;

    @ApiModelProperty(value = "访问路径")
    private String path;

}

UploadController

package com.demo.controller;

import com.demo.vo.UploadVo;
import com.demo.service.UploadService;
import io.swagger.annotations.Api;
import io.swagger.annotations.ApiOperation;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.*;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartFile;

/**
 * @ClassName: UploadController.java
 * @ClassPath: com.demo.controller.UploadController.java
 * @Description: 上传文件
 * @Author: tanyp
 * @Date: 2022/12/19 15:18
 **/
@Slf4j
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/upload")
@Api(value = "upload", tags = "上传文件")
public class UploadController {

    @Autowired
    private UploadService uploadService;

    @ApiOperation(value = "上传图片", notes = "上传图片")
    @PostMapping("/uploadImage")
    public UploadVo uploadImage(@RequestParam("file") MultipartFile file) {
        return uploadService.uploadImage(file);
    }

    @ApiOperation(value = "删除文件", notes = "删除文件")
    @GetMapping("/delFile")
    public Boolean delFile(String fileName) {
        return uploadService.delFile(fileName);
    }

    @ApiOperation(value = "下载文件", notes = "下载文件")
    @GetMapping("/downloadFile")
    public Boolean downloadFile(String fileName, String downloadPath) {
        return uploadService.downloadFile(fileName, downloadPath);
    }

}

UploadService

package com.demo.service;

import com.demo.vo.UploadVo;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartFile;

/**
 * @ClassName: UploadService.java
 * @ClassPath: com.demo.service.UploadService.java
 * @Description:上传文件
 * @Author: tanyp
 * @Date: 2022/12/19 15:18
 **/
public interface UploadService {

    UploadVo uploadImage(MultipartFile file);

    Boolean delFile(String fileName);

    Boolean downloadFile(String fileName, String downloadPath);

}

UploadServiceImpl

package com.demo.service.impl;

import com.demo.dto.UploadFileDto;
import com.demo.vo.UploadVo;
import com.demo.config.FtpConfig;
import com.demo.service.UploadService;
import com.demo.utils.UUIDUtils;
import com.demo.utils.UploadFileUtils;
import com.demo.exception.BusinessException;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartFile;

import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter;
import java.util.Objects;

/**
 * @ClassName: UploadServiceImpl.java
 * @ClassPath: com.demo.service.impl.UploadServiceImpl.java
 * @Description: 上传文件
 * @Author: tanyp
 * @Date: 2022/12/19 15:18
 **/
@Slf4j
@Service
public class UploadServiceImpl implements UploadService {

    @Autowired
    private FtpConfig ftpConfig;

    @Override
    public UploadVo uploadImage(MultipartFile file) {
        log.info("=======上传图片开始,图片名称:{}", file.getOriginalFilename());
        try {
            // 1. 取原始文件名
            String oldName = file.getOriginalFilename();

            // 2. ftp 服务器的文件名
            String newName = LocalDate.now().format(DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern("yyyyMMdd")) + UUIDUtils.getUUID(10) + oldName.substring(oldName.lastIndexOf("."));

            // 3.上传图片
            Boolean result = UploadFileUtils.upload(
                    UploadFileDto.builder()
                            .host(ftpConfig.host)
                            .port(ftpConfig.post)
                            .account(ftpConfig.username)
                            .passwd(ftpConfig.password)
                            .workingDir(ftpConfig.basePath)
                            .fileName(newName)
                            .inputStream(file.getInputStream())
                            .build()
            );

            // 4.返回结果
            if (!result) {
                throw new BusinessException("上传图片失败!");
            }

            log.info("=======上传图片结束,新图片名称:{}", newName);
            return UploadVo.builder()
                    .oldName(oldName)
                    .newName(newName)
                    .path(ftpConfig.imageBaseUrl + "/" + newName)
                    .build();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("=======上传图片异常,异常信息:{}", e.getMessage());
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public Boolean delFile(String fileName) {
        if (Objects.isNull(fileName)) {
            throw new BusinessException("文件名称为空,请核实!");
        }
        try {
            Boolean result = UploadFileUtils.delete(
                    UploadFileDto.builder()
                            .host(ftpConfig.host)
                            .port(ftpConfig.post)
                            .account(ftpConfig.username)
                            .passwd(ftpConfig.password)
                            .workingDir(ftpConfig.basePath)
                            .fileName(fileName)
                            .build()
            );
            return result;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("=======删除文件异常,异常信息:{}", e.getMessage());
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public Boolean downloadFile(String fileName, String downloadPath) {
        if (Objects.isNull(fileName) || Objects.isNull(downloadPath)) {
            throw new BusinessException("文件名称或下载路径为空,请核实!");
        }
        try {
            Boolean result = UploadFileUtils.download(
                    UploadFileDto.builder()
                            .host(ftpConfig.host)
                            .port(ftpConfig.post)
                            .account(ftpConfig.username)
                            .passwd(ftpConfig.password)
                            .workingDir(ftpConfig.basePath)
                            .fileName(fileName)
                            .downloadPath(downloadPath)
                            .build()
            );
            return result;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("=======下载文件异常,异常信息:{}", e.getMessage());
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }

}

FtpConfig

package com.demo.config;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

/**
 * @ClassName: FtpConfig.java
 * @ClassPath: com.demo.config.FtpConfig.java
 * @Description: FTP配置
 * @Author: tanyp
 * @Date: 2022/12/19 22:28
 **/
@Component
public class FtpConfig {

    // ftp 服务器ip地址
    @Value("${ftp.host}")
    public String host;

    // ftp 服务器port,默认是21
    @Value("${ftp.post}")
    public Integer post;

    // ftp 服务器用户名
    @Value("${ftp.username}")
    public String username;

    // ftp 服务器密码
    @Value("${ftp.password}")
    public String password;

    // ftp 服务器存储图片的绝对路径
    @Value("${ftp.base-path}")
    public String basePath;

    // ftp 服务器外网访问图片路径
    @Value("${ftp.image-base-url}")
    public String imageBaseUrl;

}

application.yml

# ftp
ftp:
  host: 127.0.0.1
  post: 22
  username: ftpadmin
  password: ftpadmin
  base-path: /app/upload/images
  image-base-url: http://127.0.0.1:8080/images

配置 Nginx

server {
    listen       8080;
    server_name  localhost;

    location /images/ {
        root  /app/upload/;
        autoindex on;
    }
}

SpringBoot 使用 FTP 操作文件整合完成。

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